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DEMOCRACY and CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN Class IX

IMPORTANT FACTS : i) The word  Democracy is taken from  the Greek word DEMOKRATIA which means the rule of the people in fact Democracy is the form of Government  in which people elect their rulers ii) UNIVERSAL ADULT FRANCHIES means a person above the age of 18  has the right to vote irrespective of caste , color , state, sex and religion iii) “Democracy is a form of government of the people, by the people and for the people ” by ABRAHAM LINCOLN.  iv) Non democratic form of Government is the kind of government in which people do not their ruler and have no right in decision making the government.

THE MAIN FEATURES OF DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT are i) Decision making power must be with those elected by the people ii)There must be free and fair election iii) There is one vote having equal value for one person  iv) Equal opportunity is given to every citizen to participate in the government  v) Government rules within the limits set by constitutional law and citizen’s right

ARGUMENTS FOR DEMOCRACY ; a) AGAINST i) Democracy leads to instability due to frequent leader change ii ) It leads to delay due to constant consultancy iii)It sometimes leads to bad decisions iv) Democracy encourages corruption as it is based on electoral competition .v) In this form of Government ordinary people do not have the decision making ability.

b) In FAVOUR OF DEMOCRACY i)Democratic Government is more accountable to the citizen of the country ii) Democracy improves the quality  of decision making iii) It provides the method to deal with the difference and conflicts iv) It enhances the dignity of the citizen of the country v) Democracy allows the citizens to correct their own mistakes

Chinese parliament is called NATIONAL PEOPLE’S  CONGRESS chooses it’s president. Every candidate  has to take approval from the  Chinese Communist Party to contest election . Government is always formed by Communist Party only. Though Democratic Form of Government may not be perfect form of Government but still better than any other form of  government.

Democracy  is not just  a form of government/just  some form of institution but in broader sense it is the principle which should be inculcated in every sphere of life so i) Democratic  Decision involves consultation with and consent of all those who are affected by that decision ii) Those who are not powerful have same saying taking the decision as those who are powerful iii) This can apply to the government/ family/ any other organization.

CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN

THE CONSTITUTION of the country is set of written rules that are accepted by all people living together. The constitution of the country is the supreme law that determines the relationship among citizens and also between the citizens and the government It establish the relationship among the citizen of the country  and the government

NEED OF CONSTITUTION/MAIN FUNCTIONS OF CONSTITUTION are i)It generates a degree of trust and  co-ordination that is necessary for different kind of people to live together. ii) It specifies how the government will be constituted iii) It lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what are rights of the citizens  iv) It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society

All the  countries that have constitution  are not necessarily democratic but all the countries  that are democratic must-have constitution The circumstances at the time of making the Indian Constitution  were 1) India was still the colony of Britain 2)The  partition of the  country was made on the basis of Religion  3) There was large scale violence as 10 lakh people were killed 4) There was great problem of Refugee rehabilitation 5 ) Many Princely states were merged in the Indian Territory 6) Indian Economic condition was very poor

CONSTITUTION OF SOUTH AFRICA :Apartheid was the name of system of racial discrimination unique  to South Africa. The system of apartheid divided the people and labelled them on the basis  of their skin color.

The white rulers  treated all non whites ie native blacks and people migrated from Asian countries as inferiors . The blacks, colored and Indians  fought against the apartheid system since 1950  under the organization called African National Congress (ANC)

NELSON MANDELLA , the hero of the struggle was imprisoned  for 28 years . In his autobiography “The Long Walk To Freedom ” wrote his experience to freedom.

DEMOCRATIC CONSTITUTION IN SOUTH AFRICA : During  17 and 18 century European companies in the name of trading started occupying the S. Africa . Gradually started  settling there and became the local rulers. They adopted the policy of apartheid  oppress the blacks. People in the country was divided in blacks and whites ie servants and rulers

During 1950 the native blacks, colored and Indians  started the struggle against apartheid system . African National Congress Was established and it’s leader Nelson  Mandella was sent to jail for more than 28 years and the struggle continued  against  segregation. White Rulers of Africa continued to rule by detaining, torturing and killing the thousands of  agitators as blacks colored and Indians.  The protest continued and became more aggressive . At last Government stopped the repression , Discriminatory laws were repealed and ban over political parties and media was removed .

On 26 th April 1994  The New National  Flag of  the Republic of South Africa was  unfurled and the people was Africa got freedom from the oppressiveness of Whites  Nelson Mandella became the first president of the Republic  of  South Africa . After two years of discussion and long debate a finest constitution  was framed . The South African constitution inspires democrats all over the world and gave extensive rights to the citizens of the country.

THE PATH TO INDIAN CONSTITUTION : Constitution  about what a democratic India  should look like . In 1928 pandit Motilal Nehru and eight other the Congress leaders had drafted the constitution of  India further in Karachi resolution of the Indian National Congress dwelt on how independent India should look like. The basic values  were accepted  by most of  the leaders before the working of the Constituent Assembly. There was the familiarity with political institutions of the Colonial rule. There was the existence of  colonial  laws like the Government of India Act 1935. After learning from the various system of the world Leaders were inspired by the ideals of French Revolution , Parliamentary democracy , Bill of Rights in USA , Socialist Revolution of Russia

The Constitution of India  was written by the Constituent  Assembly  comprising 299members.  adopted on 26 th November 1949 but it was implemented on 26 th January1950  now celebrated as The Republic Day of our country. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the  chairman of the drafting  Committee and  Dr  Rajender Prasad  was the president of the constituent  assembly .

THE PURPOSE OF PREAMBLE ; It indicates the  source  from which the Constitution derives it’s authority as WE THE PEOPLE OF INDIA. It states the objectives of the constitution .It provides a standard to examine and evaluate  any law and action of the government to find out weather it is good or bad

WE THE PEOPLE OF INDIAN  in  which the Constitution has been drawn  up and enacted by the people through  their representatives and not  handed down to them by a king or any outside power

SOVEREIGN in which people have supreme power to make decisions on the internal matters as well as the external matters . No external power  can dictate the Government of India.

SOCIALIST  Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society Government  should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio – economic inequalities.

DEMOCRATIC : It is a form of government where people enjoy equal political rights, elect their rulers and hold them accountable . The government is  run according to some rules.

REPUBLIC : The head of the state is an elected person and not hereditary.

JUSTICE : Citizens cannot be discriminated on the grounds of caste, religion and gender. Social in equalities have to be reduced. The Government should work for the welfare of all especially of the disadvantage groups

LIBERTY : There are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in actions.

EQUALITY : All are equal  before law. The traditional Social inequalities have to be ended we should  ensure equal opportunity for all.

FRATERNITY : All of us should behave as if we are the members of the same family. No -one should treat a  other citizens as inferior.

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