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ELECTROAL POLTICS and WORKING OF INSTITUTIONS Class IX

IMOPTANT FACTS : In democracy it is neither possible nor necessary for the people to govern directly in the present global  world. The most common form of democracy in our times is for the people, to  govern through their representative such as MP, MLA ,Councilor ,Pradhan etc. In  India elections are held  regularly after every 5 years for Lok  Sabha/ lower house of parliament , Vidhan Sabha / state assembly, Panchayats , municipalities

ELECTION are necessary by which  a) We can choose who will make law for us  b)We can choose who will form the government and take major decisions on behalf of us c)We can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and law making

FOR THE DEMOCRATIC ELECTION  there should be  i) One person and one vote b) Free and Fair election c) Election must be held after regular intervals d) The citizens are free to make choice to the voters .

The Political  Competition causes  many demerits such as i) It creates a sense of disunity or factionalism every political party has its own agenda on basis of caste and religion ii) In Political parties and it’s leaders impose allegation against one another iii) Parties and candidates  often use dirty tricks

ELECTORAL CONSTITUENCIES  : The country is divided into different aerasfor the purposes of elections . These aeras are called  electoral constituencies that is our country is divided  into 543 constituencies . The same principles are applied  for state assembly, Panchayats and municipal

RESERVED CONSTITUNCIES : There are some seats where only the certain  communities / castes can contest the election . These are called reserved constituencies  84 are reserved for SC  47  for ST and 33% for women

VOTER LIST : This is the list  of those who are eligible to vote. It is prepared much before election. This is officially called the electoral roll and also called Voters list. It is revised time to time. Now we can easily update our data through on line made at ECI website

UNIVERSAL ADULT FRANCHISE  means all the citizens of 18 and above have right to vote in the election without any discrimination of caste, creed, religion and sex.

MODEL CODE OF CONDUCT ;All the candidates and parties must follow the model code of conduct for election campaign .According to  this once the election dates are announced than  no political parties or candidates i) use any place of religion/ worship for election propaganda ii) Use government vehicles/ aircraft/government officials for election iii)Ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any projects or take any policy decisions or make any prominent  promises of providing the public facilities

PROCESS OF  ELECTION;  First of all the constituencies are formed and preparation of voter lists is framed Announcement of schedule  in which the process of election starts with the announcement of the schedule of  the Election Commission of  India  After this Nomination of Candidates  takes place . every political party nominates their candidates  who will  contest election using the allotted party symbol. Candidates not affiliated with any party  can also contest election as independent candidate. The Security of Nomination takes place. The nomination form filled by the candidates is scrutinized  by returning officer . and the choice is given ro withdraw his/her name from nomination . After this  Campaigning begins  A time limit of 14days is given before the date of polling for election Campaign . Political parties organize large public rallies and door to door campaigns to win public support.  After the polling votes . The Government schools and colleges are selected as polling booths. An indelible ink is marked on the index finger of the voter which acts as a source of identification . At last the counting of votes takes place in front of the representative of all political parties and the candidates. The candidates securing the highest number of votes is declared the winner.

POWER AND FUNCTION OF THE  ELECTION COMMISSION : Election commission takes  decisions  on every aspects of conduct and control of elections from the announcement of the elections  to the declaration of the results . It implements  the code of conduct and punishes any candidates or party that violates it . During the election period, the election Commission can order the government to follow some guidelines to prevent use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its chances to win  elections / to transfer some  government officials . When on election duty , government officers work  under the control of the election  Commission and not  the Government .

UNFAIR PRACTICES are quite common in the elections .A lot of unfair practices are used during this  time . Some of these are given below  Inclusion of false names and exclusion of genuine names in the voters list . Misuse of government  facilities and government officials by the ruling party. Excessive use of money by rich candidates and big parties Intimidation of the voters and rigging on the polling day.

The  Challenges to conduct free and fair election  are i) Candidates making promises  to solve the issues ii) Candidates using their criminal connections to disrupt the elections iii) Smaller parties and independent candidates  suffering a huge compared to bigger parties iv) Candidates winning purely based on money , power and unfair means  v) Major unfair role is played by the dominant families and their relatives to influence the voting vi ) Voters have little choice to vote due to influence and not allowed the smaller candidate to contest election due to muscle and money power.

WORKING OF INSTITUTIONS : In the democratic form of Government It has to make various arrangements to perform different functions for which different organisations are formed and the constitution describes the basics rules regarding rights and duties of each institution . In our country there are three bodies i) Legislature ii) Executive iii) Judiciary . They play important role in making decisions and President is the head of the state and highest form of authority in the country . Prime minister is the head of the Government and infact exercises all government powers. All the decisions are taken by him  in the Cabinet meeting.

A) PARLIAMENT   B) PRESIDENT  C)RAJYA SABHA / UPPER HOUSE  D) LOK SABHA/ LOWER HOUSE.

PARLIAMENT : In all democracies an assembly of elected representatives exercises the supreme political power on the behalf of the people of India Such a national assembly of elected representatives is called parliament . In case of state level it is called LEGISLATURE ASSEMBLY .

LOK SABHA : It is called the House of people /Lower House consist of 543 elected members and 2 nominated  by the president of India  from Anglo – Indian community total 545  the are directly elected by the people for the tenure of 5 years

RAJYA SABHA It is also called upper chamber/House of Council of  State  consist of 250 members elected by MLA  for tenure of 6 years. It is called permanent house which cannot be dissolved 12 members are nominated by the president from the Art and other fields such as Science and Sports.

COMPARES OF POWERS ;Any ordinary law has to be passed by both the houses. But if there is difference between the houses , the final decisions is taken in a joint session . Owing to the larger number , the view of the Lok  Sabha is likely to prevail. Lok Sabha exercises more powers in  money matters. The Rajya Sabha can  suggest changes in such matters but the  Lok Sabha has the Final say in the Matters. The Lok Sabha controls the council of ministers . The government has to quit if they lose the confidence of the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha does not have this power.

NEED OF THE PARLIAMENT :i) The Parliament is the final authority for making laws in any country ii) Parliament controls those who  run the government. The government  can take decisions so long as they enjoy support of the parliament  iii) Parliaments control all the money that government has iv)Parliament is the highest forum of discussion and debate on the public issues and national policies in any country .

EXECUTIVE : Political and Permanent : At the different level of the government, there are some  functionaries who take day to day  decisions. All those functionaries  are collectively known as the executive. They are called executive because they are  in the charge of the execution of the policies of the government. Thus when we talk about the government thus  we usually mean the executive i)  In Political  executive  Elected by people for a specific period and Political leaders fall in the this category  ii) In the Permanent Executive People are appointed on  a long term basis , Persons working in the civil services fall in this category ,This works under the political executive.

The President Appoints The Leader Of The Major Party as PM and on the advice of the PM other ministers are appointed by the president . The ministers should be the member of the Parliament . A person who is not the member of the parliament  can become the Ministers but he has to get elected to one of the houses within six months.

COUNCIL OF MINISTERS : They is the official name for the body that includes all the ministers . It includes following three types of the ministers  a) Cabinet Ministers about  20 top-level ministers who are in charge of the major ministers b) Ministers of State with  independent Charge : They are attached  to and required to assist cabinet of small ministers c) Ministers Of States They are attached to and  required to assist Cabinet Ministers the parliamentary democracy is often called Cabinet Form of Government because most of the important  decisions are taken in Cabinet meetings. Collective Responsibilities  of the ministers may have different  views and opinions but everyone  has to own  up to every decision of the cabinet while the  Prime Minister is the head  of the government  the president is the head of the State

POWERS OF PRIME MINISTERS  i) He/ she is the head of the government  He is most powerful institution of the country . ii)Ministers are appointed by the President but on his advice  iii) He distributes and redistribute the work to the ministers  iv)He can dismiss any of the appointed ministers .v) He is the chairperson of cabinet meetings vi) He co-ordinates the work of different departments. His decisions are final incase disagreements arise between any departments vii) He is the leader of the house If the Prime Minister quits the entire ministers have to quit .

PRIME MINISTER FORM OF GOVERNMENT :If the cabinet is most powerful institution , within the cabinet it is Prime Minister  who is the most powerful and commands so much power in the parliamentary democracy that it seems as Prime Ministers form of government

ELECTION OF THE PRESIDENT : The President of India is not directly elected by the people . The elected members of he parliament (MP) and the elected member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) elect the president .

POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT : i) All the major appoints are made in the name of the President as Chief Justice of SC, HC , Chief ministers of union territory, Governors of the state , ambassadors of the country etc ii) All international treaties and agreements are made in the name of President iii)The President is the Supreme  Commander of Defence Forces of India iv)All laws and major policy decisions of the government are issued in the name of the President  v)All bill passed by the parliament becomes law only after the assent of the President vi) The President appoints the PM and the other ministers on the advice of the PM

THE MANDAL COMMISSION : The Government of India  had appointed the second backward  classes commission in 1979 which was headed by sh. B.P. Mandal .Itwas asked to determine the criteria to identify  the socially, educationally backward classes in India and recommend steps to be taken for the advancement. One of the main recommendation of the commission was that 27% of he government jobs be reserved for the socially , educationally backward classes In 1990 the Union Cabinet decided to implement the recommendations which resulted in debates , agitations and representation of different social groups.

INDIAN  JUDICIARY  The Indian Judiciary consist of Supreme Court for the entire nation , High Courts controls the judicial administration in the country in the states, The Districts Courts are at local level

INTEGRATED JUDICIARY : India has  an integrated judiciary. It means  the  Supreme Court  controls the  judicial administration in the country. It’s decisions are the binding on the other courts of the country .

JUDICIAL REVIEW ; The Supreme Court of India and the High Courts can determine the constitutional validity of any legislation or action of the executive in the country ,weather at the Union level/at the state level .when it is challenged before them .It is known as Judicial Review.

PUBLIC INTERST LITIGATION : (PIL)  The court can give Judgment and directive to protect  public Interest. Anyone can approach the courts if public interest is hurt by the action of the government.

INDEPENDENCE OF JUDICIARY : i)Indian Judiciary is not under the control of the legislature or executive ii) The Judges of SC and HC are appointed by the President of India and the Judge can  be removed by impeachment motion which is impossible iii) The SC and HC have power to interpret the constitution of the country which is called Judicial Review iv) Judiciary acts as the guardian of the Fundamental Rights

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