POVERTY refers to the situation in which a person is not able to get the minimum  basic necessities of life example food , clothing  shelter for his /her sustenance. Every fifth Indian is poor . India is having the largest number of poor people in the world. However latest report suggests that India is no longer  a nation having largest the number of poor in the world .  Nigeria overtook India  as the country with the largest number of extreme poor ( The Times of India 27 June 2018 )

URBAN POVERTY  ; They do not have physical assets and generally live in slums . Rikshaw pullers , cobblers hawkers , rag pickers , daily wage labourers  whereas RURAL POVERTY  in which people  do not have agriculture land , they are landless farmers . agricultural labours , small and marginal farmers,

VIEWS OF SOCIAL SCIENTISTS : Poverty refers to the level of income and consumption . Apart from this poverty is looked through  other social indicators like illiteracy level , lack of general resistance due to malnutrition lack of access to health care , lack of jobs , lack of safe drinking water and sanitation.

SOCIAL EXCLUSION : Poverty is seen in terms of poor  have to live in the poor surroundings with other poor people.

VULNERABILITY ; It is to poverty is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities  or individuals of becoming or remaining poor in the coming years

POVERTY LINE :A person is considered poor if his/her income/consumption level falls below a given minimum level necessary to fulfill basic needs.  This minimum level is referred to as Poverty line It is determined on the basis of calories that in Rural Aera  2400 calories per person per day and in Urban Aera the consumption is2100 calories per person per day On the basis of Income poverty is defined as in Rural Aera person earning is Rs 816 /month and in Urban Aer the earning per month is Rs 1000

The monetary expenditure per  capita neede for buying the requisite calorie requirements in  terms of food grains etc. is calculated. It is revised periodically taking into the considerationthe rise in prices. On he basis of these calculations, for the year 2011-12b the poverty line for the person was fixed at Rs 816/month for Rural Aera and Rs 1000/month  for the urban aera. These estimates were given by  TENDULKAR COMMITTEE. but the planning commission /NITI Aayog  had aers ppointed another committee in 2014 under chairmanship Rangarajan and poverty raised to Rs 972 /person/month in Rural Aera and in Urban Aera Rs1407 /person/month

VULNERABLE GROUP : Schedule Tribes (ST) , Schedule Caste (SC) , Agricultural Labour and  Casual Laborers are the most vulnerable groups in India they  always remain poor throughout year

INTER -STATE DISPARTIES ; It is the proportion of poor people is not the same in every state such as in Bihar and Odisha are the poorest states in India

DECLINE IN POVERTY : In Punjab and Haryana  due to high agricultural growth, In  Kerala owing to  more  focus on human resources in development , In West Bengal there had been greater mount of land reforms and in states like  Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu public distribution of food grains are the main causes to decline poverty in their respective states

NATIONAL SAMPLE SURVEY ORGANISATION (NSSO) This is the organization that estimates the poverty line periodically within the period of 5 years by conducting  sample surveys

GLOBAL POVERTY SCENARIO : According to the  World Bank  a person living on less than  1.90 us dollar per person per day is said to be poor. According  to most recent estimates in 2013  10.7%  of the World Population lived on less than 1.97 us dollar a day

THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS(SDG) of the United Nations calls  for endingthe extreme poverty by 2030.

CAUSES OF POVERTY  a) Policies of  British Era b) Low economic growth after Independence upto eighties c) Population Growth d) Limited Sucess of  Green Revolution e) Unequal distribution of land and other  resources f) Socio – Cultural Factors .

ANTI- POVERTY  MEASURES  a) Promotion of Economic Growth: There is a strong link between  economic growth and poverty reduction . economic growth  widens opportunities and provide the resources needed to invest in human development but the poor may not be able to take advantage  from the opportunities created by economic growth. Growth also increase the government revenues and  consequently , it could afford  the programes for  poverty reduction .  That is why these two  strategies are also known as  complementary to each other. b) TARGETED ANTI – POVERTY PROGRAMMES : Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment  Guarantee Act 2005 , Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana , Swaran Jayanti Graim  Swarozgar Yojana , Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana, Antyodaya Anna Yojana

ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION : The economic growth up to the early eighties,1980 and 1990 and level of poverty is a direct evidence of connection between economic growth and poverty reduction . But , the question arises how the growth helps in the reduction of poverty ? Conceptually  rapid economic growth works through two channels

It creates well paid jobs and rises  real wages. Both the factors raise incomes of poor households there by directly reducing the poverty. Further , with increased income ,the households are able to spend in  education and health services. This spending in education and health helps in then reduction of poverty  in the long run . More  income leads to more investment in businesses and industries thereby creating more employment and consequently reduction in poverty.

Rapid economic growth leads to growth in the government revenues. The government uses these increased revenues in the running various welfare programmes .It is because  of the increasing revenue that India could afford  Mahatma Gandhi  National Rural  Employment Guarantee Scheme and near universal Public Distribution System (PDS)

MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL GUARANTEE ACT 2005;Its aim is assuring employment to every rural households, Minimum 100 days of assured employment in a year, one third jobs are reserved for women , If an applicant is not provided  employment with 15 days he/she is entitled to daily unemployment allowance , wages as per the minimum  wages act . 1

PRIME MINISTER ROZGAR YOJANA : It is started in 1993 with the aim to create self employment  opportunities for educated unemployment youth in rural and small towns. It help is setting small  business and industries

THE CHALLENGES A HEAD AND NEW  APPROACHES IN POVERTY REDUCTION : The  Sustainable Development goals (SDG) of the United  Nations  calls for ending the extreme poverty  by 2030 .In this context reduction of poverty requires innovative approaches in the country. Further  with the development , it is expected that the definition of poverty would change. Though we have been  able to maintain  high economic growth in the last 20 years , but this has not resulted in creating large  number of employment, further we need to make anti – poverty  schemes more effective new approaches i) Jan Dhan Yojana , Aadhar and Mobile This trinity could play an important role in the widening the reach of the government to vulnerable sections. This would  prevent in the leakages in the distribution in the long run . Universal Basic Income .:It is considered  as an alternative to various state subsides for the poverty alleviation . by Economic Survey 2017 . Though it is still at discussion level , The Universal basics income envisages paying  the beneficiaries directly into the bank accounts to help reduce leakage


DIMENSIONSOF FOOD SECURITY IN INDIA  depends on a) Availability  which consist of food production within the country,  import of food products and the stock stored in government granaries  b) Accessibility  of food is a kind of food within the reach of every c) Affordability of food is the enough food  is available for all persons ,persons have capacity to buy food of acceptable quality , and there is no barrier on the access of food.

FOOD INSECURITY ;The poorest section of the society remains  food insecure all the times. People above  poverty line might also feel food insecure in the times of natural calamity like earth quake , drought, flood and tsunami etc In urban aera food insecurity is noticed in person employed in low paid occupations and casual labour which are in social composition of SC,ST,OBC, migrants ,female and new born babies In Rural aera it is among the small and landless farmers, traditional artisans such as weavers ,potters, providers of services as barbers,washer men and women , household servants, petty self employed

EFFECTS  During Natural calamity the production of food grain decreases  due to which there is a shortage of food grains  so the price of the food product rise which becomes less affordable to most of the poor people that  causes massive  starvation result in famine, malnutrition and wide spread of  death.

HUNGER is an aspect of not just indicating food insecurity and poverty but also brings poverty  The attainment of food security involves eliminating current hunger and reducing the risk future hunger

HUNGER HAS CHRONIC AND SEASONAL DIMENSIONS because that i) Poor people suffer from  chronic hunger due to  very low income and are food insecure all the times ii) In Rural aera seasonal hunger is caused by the seasonal nature of agricultural activities iii) In urban  aera the seasonal hunger occurs because of the casual type of work like construction workers won’t get work during rainy season .

THERE IS A GREAT NEED FOR SELF- SUFFICIENCY  IN FOOD GRAINS  so that i) we could feed rising population ii) To fight against drought, floods and cyclones  iii) to reduce import of food grains iv) To control the prices of the food grains to make affordable even for poor people .

The Government has taken  important steps for the food security i) Opening of Fair Price Shops ii) Maintain the Buffer Stock iii)Giving minimum support price and subsidy to the farmers to increase the income of farmers and their consumption iv)Issue the price of food grain to create affordability v) Making Public Distribution System well  aquipped.

BUFFER STOCK is the stock of food grains such as wheat and rice  procured by the government through the FOOD CORPORATION OF INDIA (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice for the government from the farmers of surplus states at pre- announced prices. This is called MSP ie  minimum support price .

The grains that are stored in Buffer Stocks are distributed in deficit aeras and among the poor people of the society at a price lower than the market price which is called issue price .

Subsidy is the payment that the government makes to the producer to supplement the market price of a commodity . It keeps consumer prices low while  maintain a higher income for producers

RATIONING in India  started back to 1940 against the backdrop of Bengal Famine but was revived in the wake of acute food shortage  during 1960 before Green Revolution Around the mid of 1970 the three important intervention programmes were introduced which were i) Public Distribution System (PDS) ii) Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)  iii) Aood for Work (FFW)

PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM  refers to a system trough which the food  procured by FCI is distributed among the poor through the government regulated ration shops by using ration cards . There are about 5.5 lakh ration shops all over the country also known as Fair Price Shop, which keeps stock of food grains, sugar which is sold at very low price .There are three kinds of ration  cards i) ANTYODAYA CARDS  it is for the poorest of the poor ii)BPL CARD  for those people they lie below poverty line  iii) APL CARD  for all other people

NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY ACT 2013  was passed to provide food and nutritional security at affordable price to 75% of the Rural population and 50% of the Urban population

A CO- OPERATIVE SOCIETY  is an autonomous group of people who  unite at their own will to meet their common economic, social and cultural need through a jointly owned and democratically controlled company. These  co-operatives societies along with serval  non – government organization (NGO) also play an important role ensuring food security by setting up  shops to sell low priced goods to people such as Amul , Mother Dairy

The Green Revolution which increased the quantity of food production by using HYV seeds and modern  agricultural technique has been  a torch bearer in ensuring the food security in India .In India NSSO  has the responsibility to collect the data of  Economic Survey .

THE ROLE OF CO-OPERTAIVE IN FOOD SECURITY  i) These  societies are set up  the shops to sell low priced  goods to poor people ii) In Delhi, Mother Dairy is making strides in providing of milk and vegetables at controlled price decided by the government iii)Amul is another success story of co-operatives in milk and milk product from Gujarat .It has brought the White Revolution in the country . iv) In Maharashtra The Academy Of Development Science (ADS) has facilitated a network of NGO for setting up grain banks in different region

Features of different programmes i)PDS  introduced  up to 1992 targeted universal group ii) Revamped PDS (RPDS) in 1992 for the remote and backward aera of the country iii) Targeted PDS in 1997 for BPL and APL  iv) Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)in 2000 for the poorest of poor v) Annapurna Yojana (APY) in2000 for poverty stricken poor senior citizens vi) National Food Security Act in 2013 given priority household vii) Mid Day Meal in 1995 for the students up to class 8th

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