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RUSSIAN REVOLUTION class IX

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION : The french Revolution opened up the the possibility  of creating a dramatic change in society , there were the groups and ideas that  looked to change  society according to their thoughts and visions .  The three groups were CONSERVATIVES , LIBERALS AND RADICALS .

CONSERVATIVES are those who opposed liberal and radicals ,asserted that past must be respected  and the changes take place in them is very slow

LIBERALS ;They  have tolerance  of all religions, it opposed the uncontrolled power of King, It always support the rights of the individuals , liberals always support the representative , elected  parliamentary government and independent judiciary  they are in favour of vote including women and also supported the private property .

RADICALS :  Radicals are the government based on majority , they opposes the privileges given to great landowners and wealthy  factory owners . Many of radicals supported women’s suffragette movements.  Radicals always supported the  private  property but against the concentration of property in the hands of few

MAIN PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  :  Greater amount of unemployment , Workers have to do work for long hours and were given  low wages by which they unable to meet their both ends as the population was more so there was great problem of housing and   sanitation which created unhealthy atmosphere .

SOCIALISM : Socialist were against  the private property but had different ideas on how  a society without property could operate. Some of visions of socialists are follows:

ROBERT OWETEN : He was sought to build a co-operative community .

LOUIS BLANC : He wanted the government to encourage the co- operatives and replace capitalist  enterprises.

KARL MARX and  FREDRICK ENGELS : They argued that the  industrial society was capitalist. The Capitalists owned the capital invested in the factories and the profit  of the was produced by workers Thus  capitalists  exploit  the workers.

MARX believed that this  capitalist system would be triumphed by the workers and socialist society would  be established where all property would be socially controlled.

AUTOCRACY  Itis the rule by the king with the absolute powers the RUSSIAN Parliament is called DUMA

BLOODY SUNDAY :  When the procession of workers near  Winter Palace in St Petersburg they were   attacked by the police. In this incident more than 100workers were killed and 300 worker were badly wounded. This incident took place   On 22 nd  January  1905 the day of Sunday so itis called Bloody Sunday It was the violent phase of Russian Revolution .

FEBRUARY REVOLUTION : In February there was acute shortage of food  in the worker quarters due to which many workers started protest. Soldiers also joined them Sensing the trouble the tsar  abdicated and a provisional government was formed and  the monarch was brought down in the February Revolution of 1917 ,dissolution of Russian Empire.

APRIL THESES  : In April 1917  the  Bolshevik leader  Vladimir Lenin  returned to Russia  from his exile . He  presented three demands  which were known as  Lenin’s April Theses that was  i) The first world war  must be brought to a close ii) Land must be transferred to  the peasants iii) Banks should be nationalised

OCTOBER  REVOLUTION 1917  :There was great  conflict between the Provisional Government  the uprising was growing in Bolsheviks against the government .Lenin emphasized on  the uprising against the government. The uprising began on 24 October 1917 .By the night fall the city was completely under control of Bolsheviks the ministers of the government surrendered this kind of uprising spread in other cities gradually in whole country this revolution came to be known as October revolution

RUSSIA AFTER REVOLTION ;  After revolution of October in Russia i) Private property was eradicated ii)Russia became  one party state and Russian Communist Party was the only party in Russia iii)Most of industries and Banks was nationalised  iv)Russia signed the peace pact with Germany v0Land was declared social property and land of nobility was seized . v) Beginning of civil was in Russia  vi)  Censorship in all aspects of life was imposed . vii) Ban on the old titles of aristocracy

CIVIL WAR ;  After the revolution, the entire Russia was divided in three groups i) Bolshevik’s the reds  ii) Socialist Revolutionaries the green iii) The Tsarist the whites  The civil war among these groups started in Russia . The Greens and Whites were supported by France , USA, Japan and Britain. Looting , Banditry and famine became common during the civil war .

COLLECTIVISATION :Stalin started the Collectivisation programme in Russia .Under this  the peasants were forced to cultivation collective  farms. The bulk of land and the implements were transferred to the ownership of collective farms. Peasants worked on the land and the profit of the farm was shared

SOCIALIZATION OF THE RUSSIAN SOCIETY  :    After the October  Revolution  The Russian Society became socialised such as  i) Nationalization of Banks and Industries ii) Collective Farming iii) Central planning the beginning of five year plans  iii) An extended  schooling system developed, arrangements were made for factory workers and peasants to enter the universities  iv) Model living quarters for the workers  v) Creches were established the factories  vi)Availability of cheap public health care

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