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The Story of Palampur and People as Resources Class IX

THE STORY OF VILLAGE  PLAMPUR :  i) The Land Distribution : There are 15 families are landless , 240families have small lands , 60 families are medium class farmers and few farmers are large farmers  ii) The Factors of Production in Palampur are Land , Labour , capital which is  in fixed and  human capital working in which big farmers give lands to small and landless labours .They give land also to work on  landless labourers work on daily wages iii)Farming is the main activity of Palampur , Dairy , shopkeeping ,Transport services , small  manufacturing units are the main source of economic activities . The main products are sold in Raiganj and some are kept for self consumption and money earned is used further in business . Palampur has well connected  roads to neighboring villages and towns . It has two primary schools , one high schools . There is one government Primary HealthCenters and one private dispensary. The farmers of Palampur use modern methods of Farming while they use HYV seeds ,Fertilizers Pesticides , modern irrigation facilities’ to achieve motive of Green Revolution.

FACTORS OF PRODUCTION  : a) Land which includes natural resources such as water, forest and minerals b) Labour are those people who work for the development of the economy c) Capital are used of two types i ) Fixed capital which includes machines, building and tools  ii)Working capital which includes raw material and cash in hands d) Human Capital which means knowledge and enterprise include skills and education.

The agriculture crop  year in India  is from July toJune.Agriculture seasons are classified into three  cropping seasons a) Rainy Seasons /Kharif  from  July to October  main crops sown are Jowar, bajra , rice , maize , cotton , tobacco b) Winter Season /Rabi c) Summer season/ Zaid  March – June  crops in this are watermelon, Toris , cucumber , leafy vegetables and flowers

MULTIPLE CROPPING  is the practice of growing more than one crop on the same piece of land during one crop year.

Agriculture practices carried out in  India from acient period  ,Traditional Farming adheres to the  traditional method  of agriculture . On the other hand ,modern farming experiments with the implementation of the advanced technology . The basic  difference between  traditional Agriculture practices carried out in  India from ancient period  ,Traditional Farming adheres to the  traditional and modern farming  is the technology . The standard method of measuring land is hectare that is one hectare = 10000 sq metre

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN  TRADITIONA FARMING AND MODERN FARMING :

Traditional Farming  mostly labour intensive are workers  from the family , traditional seeds are sown ,in the name of fertilizers cow dung and other natural manure are used, ploughing is done by animals and bullocks  harvesting is done manually, Persian wheels were used by farmers to draw water from wells , canals and mostly depends on rainfall capital needed is very less it comes under subsistence farming

In the Modern Farming Labour are hired ,  farmers use HYV seeds , Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used , Costly machinery, tractors and threshers. Tube wells , pumps sets canals ,dams tanks are used for irrigation as modern technology is used which is capital intensive more capital is needed

GREEN REVOLUTION ; There was great increase in the  production of wheat and rice in India in 1960 is called Green Revolution . It  could happen owing to the introduction  of modern farming by use of HYV seeds , use of fertilizers and Pesticides along with modern methods of irrigation  techniques such as tube wells , and modern farming machinery

Due to Green Revolution there was increase in Agricultural production, which also increase  the employment opportunities, created the strong bonding between agriculture and industry and farmers became market oriented  but green revolution also produce  negative impact on agriculture land by loss of fertility , use of more water causes depletion of water table , green revolution was confined to limted aera such as Punjab and western UP which created the regional economic disparities among the farmers and also created inter personal inequalities

PEOPLE AS RESOURCE 

They are the human resource which is called workable population an asset for the economy rather than a liability  therefore known as human capital when there is investment  made in the form of education, training and medical care  ,it is the stock of human skill and productive knowledge embodied in them. This is one way superior to other resources like land, physical capital  they cannot become useful unless utilized fruitfully by the skill of human beings.

People as a perforce can  be said those who have productive skills and abilities of a country’s working class . The population who has an ability to contribute to the creation of the gross national product (GNP) with the help of their education, Skill , Training and good health sour
Human beings perform many function which can be grouped  into Economic and Non – Economic activities. Education and Skill are the major determinant of earning of any individual in the market . Population becomes the human capital when the investment  made in the form of education , training and medical care  as Japan did not have natural resources made it developed and wealthy country

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES are classified into a) Market Activities which refer to those activities of man/ woman which are undertaken for a monetary gain to satisfy his/her needs b)Non – Economic Activities are ones that are not undertaken for any monetary gain . These are also called unpaid activities for example Puja in one’s home , housekeeping, helping the poor cooking food for the family .

IMPOTRANCE OF EDUCATION ;The quality of population depends upon the literacy rate, life expectancy and skills formation acquired by the people of the country . Education is the most important  component of human resource development. a) It helps individual to make better use of economic opportunities available before him b)It contributes towards the growth of society and also enhances the national income, cultural richness and efficiency of the governance c) Measures like SARVA SIKSHA  ABHIYAN (SSA) MID DAY MEAL SCHEME (MDM) and RIGHT to EDUCATION ACT (RTE)  have been introduced to push education at the farthest end

HEALTH is another very important component of human resource development. Efficiency of workers largely de[ends on their health.

STATUS OF  WEASONAOMEN  IN LABOUR MARKET    In the unorganized sectors women meagre education and low skills , women are paid low , unequal salary , they do not have job security  and legal protection is meagre ,there is absence of basic facilities like maternity leave , child care and other social security systems ORGANISED SECTORS  They work  according Education and Skills  with the regular job with Security . The Salary according to  Government  Rules and regulation. Legal protection is available . Women avail abilities of Basic facilities like maternity leave ,childcare and other social security systems If a person is healthy he would give his maximum output in his working hours resulting the growth of economy.

UNEMPLOYMENT :  is said  to exist when  people whi are willing to work at the prevailing wage rates cannot find jobs. They are classified into  a) SEASONAL  UNEMPLOYMENT ;It occurs when people fail to get work during some months of the year that is during off season such as Farm Labourers usually face this kind of the problem b) DISGUISED UNEMPLOYMENT : It refers to a situation where the number of workers in a job is more than actually required to do he job. The extra number of workers is disguisedly unemployed. This can be seen in the agricultural workforce where more than required number ( say 13 people ) of a family  members is involved in work that could be done by four people means that 9 people are disguisedly unemployed as their presence /absence does not matter c) URBAN UNEMPOLYMENT    occurs when the educated person do not get employment according to its educational level /has to work below it . People having higher degree of educational qualification do not have work to do or computer engineer with degree is working as data entry operator in a firm

EFFECTS OF UNEMPOLYMENT  i) It is the wastage of manpower resources ii)People who are an asset for the economic development turn into liability  iii) There is a feeling  of  hopelessness and dispair among  the youth of society iv) It tends to increase  economic overload v) Unemployment  has detrimental impact on the overall growth of an economy .Increase in unemployment is an indicator of depressed economy . vi) Unemployment leads  to decline in health status of the individual and family

LIBERLISATION , PRIVATISATION and GLOBALISATION

REASONS FOR ECONOMIC  REFORMS : There were  various reasons for making the major Economic reforms i) Poor Performance of Public Sectors  ii)Deficits in the Balance of Payment iii) Inflationary  Pressures  iv) Fall in Foreign  exchanges reserve v) Huge burden of debts vi ) Inefficient management .

ECONOMIC CRISIS OF 1991 Indian Government  approached World Bank and IMF and received $ 7 billion as loan . For availing the loan , these international agencies expected India  to  liberalise and open up the economy by i) Removing restriction on private sectors ii) Reducing role of government in many aera iii) Removing trade restrictions .

THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY : (NEP )  was  announced to create a more competitive environment in the economy and remove barriers to entry and the growth of the firms. NEP can be broadly classified into two kinds of measures i) Stabilisation method  it refers to  connecting the weakness of Balance of Payment  by maintain sufficient foreign exchange reserves and  controlling inflation by keeping rising prices under control ii) Structural Reform methods by improving efficiency of the economy and increasing the international competitiveness.

 

 

 

 

 

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