Print Culture And The Modern World Class 10

  • Printing culture in early age
  •  When printing press was invented, it produced the great impact on social, cultural and political life of the people. Initially printing was developed in east Asia China, Japan, Korea than after in Europe later in India. From 594 AD the books in China were printed by rubbing paper also invented there against the inked surface of wooden block . There was handwritten manual system of printing before the printing press was invented. Books were handwritten the calligraphy   i.e. the art of beautiful and stylish writing was developed.
  • In China printing matter became popular. China is the first country in the world to conduct civil service examination so printing material for the examination became popular till 16 centuries. The trade information were circulated among the businessmen through the means of printing materials. SHANGHAI became the hub of new printing culture changing to western style schools. In 19th century China started the mechanical printing press JOHANN GUTERBER was the person who invented the printing press in 1430 at STRASBOURG in Germany. His most beautiful book printed by him was THE BIBLE. The Germany played the leading role in revolutionaries. the printing in whole Europe.
  • GUTERBERG was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agriculture estate, since he was well known about the press of wine and olive, he learnt the polishing of stones and became master goldsmith and able to create moulds being scientific in nature the olive press provided him the mode of printing press and the moulds  were used for casting the metal type for letters alphabets.
  • PRINTING IN JAPAN: In 768-770 Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand printing in Japan. The oldest book published in868 AD is Buddhists Diamond Sutra .Libraries and bookstores were packed with hand-printing material of various types such as books on women, musical instrument etc.
  • PRINTING IN EUROPE: There was trade relation between China and European countries in 11 century Chinese paper reached to Europe through the same route which made the possibilities of manuscripts carefully written by scribes than after in1295 MARCO-POLO a great explorer returned to Italy with the idea of such printing Italy began producing books with wood blocks soon this method spread in whole Europe.
  • The handwritten wooden written manuscript was done with unique method. It was copied on the palm leaves or handmade papers. The pages were taken in calligraphy and pressed between the wooden covers to ensure preservation.
  • Manuscript which was available was very expensive, fragile, and found in vernacular language but cannot be read easily as it was written in very stylish way so it was not popular and could not be used in everyday life.
  • Production of handwritten method of manuscript could not meet demand of the books more over copying was too expensive, laborious and time consuming fragile and awkward to handle, could not be carried for long.  In the early 15th century woodblocks were widely used in Europe to print the textiles, playing cards prints and religious pictures etc.
  •  New visual culture started by the end of 19th century as the numbers of printing press were increasing so the visual images were easily produced in multiple copies painter like Raja Ravi Verma produced images in large number cheap prints and calendars were accessible for poor to decorate their houses.
  • Writing of various thinkers greatly impact on the tradition superstition and many other evils of society argue through application of reason and rationality. They attacked the church and despotic power of the state which eroding the social order and tradition.
  • Many religious societies feared that if there was no control over printing than non-religious sentiments would be spread. In 1517 Martin Luther the religious reformer criticsed  many Roman Catholic practices and rituals his translation of New Testament 5ooo copies sold like forest fire which created the division within church which began the Protestant reformation MENOCCHIO a miller in Italy began to read books that was available in his locality .He reinterpreted the message of the Bible and formulated  about god and creation which enraged  the Roman church later on he was executed. Roman church began to suppress the heretical idea. In1558 Roman Chruch started the Index of Prohibited  Books  to control the publication.
  • The Reading Mania in Europe
  •  Many schools were established for the literacy of peasants and artisans. In some parts of Europe literacy was about 60–80 %. In England the Chapman became popular who carried penny chapbooks as paddlers. In France low price small books was published on poor quality paper and cheap blue cover known as BILIOTHEQUE BLEUE. 1857 in France the children press was setup devoted to children literature.
  • The Grimm Brothers in Germany compiled the folktales which they gathered from peasants.  Lending libraries became popular in 17th century whereas it became very popular in19th century which helped the white collars, artisans, lower middle class to educate themselves. Women became the popular readers and writers Penny magazines were especially for women some women novelist as Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, Gorge Eliot became very popular among women. The new type of women were defined by great writers  who enhance  strength  and personality of women determination and power to think. Reading among the women increased in the The periodicals press became the source of current affairs and entertainment such as newspapers, journals.
  • The articles written by Thomas Paine Voltaire   Jean Jacques Rousseau were widely read. The Shilling Series became popular in England in which the most of famous works was sold in cheap series in 1930 during great depression the publishers were confused for the decline of sale of books, so they started buying cheap paperback edition.
  • India and the world Print
  • India had very old tradition of handwritten manuscript in Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian as well as in various vernacular language. Manuscript copied on palm leaves or hand made paper. During pre-colonial Bengal developed an extensive network of village primary schools, students did not read text they learn how to write. Teachers dictated portions of texts from memory and students had to write it down.
  •  The printing press came in India in Goa with Portuguese missionaries in mid of 16th century. By 1674 50 books was published had been printed in Konkani by Jesuist  priest, the Kanara Indian language. the first Tamil book was printed in 1579 at Cochin, Malayalam book in 1713, English printing in India started by the publication of the Bengal Gazette in 1780 as weekly magazine by edited by James Augustus Hickey after the Indian newspaper the Bengal Gazette by Gangadhar Bhattacharya
  • Impact of Print on Indian Women 
  •  The new type of women were defined by Reading among the women increased in the middle class. Ram Mohan Roy published the Sambaed Kaumudi from 1821 and the orthodox commissioned as the Samachar Chandrika. The Gujarati newspaper and the Bombay Samachar  were published the same year.
  •  The Persian newspaper named Jam – i- Jahan Noma and Shamsul Akhdar was published in 1822.  In 1867 the Deoband Seminara was founded they published thousands of fatwas in which Muslim readers could learn   the conduct for everyday life according to Islamic Doctrine. The Hindus also encouraged the reading of religious books the first printed edition of the RAMCHRITRAMANS of Tulsidas 16 century text came out from Calcutta in 1810o. Naval Kishore press at Lucknow or Shri Venkateshwar Press in Bombay publish lots of religious text vernaculars.
  • In 1876 Rash Sundari Debi published her autobiography, Amar Jiban published in Bengali . The mesriable condition of high-class Hindu women and widows was described   by Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Bai in1880. Istre Vichar to teach the women to be obedient wives was published by Ram Chadha. Gulam Giri was written by Jyotiba Phule 1871 about injustice in the caste system. Kashibaba  the Kanpur mill worker wrote Chote aur Bade Ka Saval in 1938 – 1955with same theme of class exploitation undernick name Sudarsan Chakar  were brought together  as SACCHI KAVITAYAN.
  • In 20 century focused on women education. widowhood, widow remarriage was discussed.
  •  The Vernacular Press Act 
  • By 1820 the Calcutta Supreme Court passed the law to control press freedom, but company encouraged the publication of newspapers   but under pressure Govenor General Bentinck agreed to revise the law finally Thomas Macaulay, a liberal colonial official made new rules and restored the freedom.
  • In1878 the Brisht Government imposed the Vernacular Act in which they tried to restrict the spreading of nationalist feeling through print media. The government kept the regular track on the newspapers and had complete right of censorships them. in vernacular press. If the government received the report of seditions first they were warned if not mended their newspaper and machines were seized.
  • Important comments
  •  Martin King Luther said Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one.
  •  Louis Sabastian Mercier said printing press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotism away.  Tremble therefore tyrants of the world! Tremble before the virtual writer!
  • Charles Metcalfe was the acting governor general of India in 1835 by removing all the restriction over the press of India so known as Liberator of the  in Madras  known as Press
  • Richard M Hoes of New York had perfected the power-driven cylindrical press which was capable of printing 8000 sheets in an hour useful to Newspaper.
  • B R Ambedkar of Maharashtra and E V Ramaswamy in Madras known as  Periyar  wrote against caste system.

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