Resources and Development

  1. What is Resource ? What are it’s feature ? give examples.
  2. What are biotic and  abiotic resources give it’s example . ( Resorces on basis of Origin)
  3. What are Renewable  & non Renewable resources give example ? ( Resource on the basis of Exhaustibility )
  4.  Define : a)Individual Resource b) Community owned resource c) National Resource d)International  Resource e)Potential Resource f) Stock  g) Reserve  resource.
  5.  What is Sustainable development  and why is it essential for development ? What is land degradation ? What are the main causes of land degradation and how can it be prevented ?
  6. What is soil erosion ? what are main causes  explain with reference to human activity and natural ?
  7. What are  Gully Wind and Sheet erosion? Write the Methods by which Soil Erosion can be checked .
  8. By the report of 2000 India waste land was % of water eroded, forest degradation , wind eroded land ?
  9. Write the % of plain Mountain and Plateaus present in India?
  10.  What are Resources planning? Give it’s Stages. Explain the Resources Conservation ?
  11. Name the two type of Alluvial Soil ?How is it formed  and it’s  characteristics ?
  12. Main crops which can be sown in Alluvial soil are  of four types which are they ? Write the region in which it is found ?
  13. Regur soil is also called ———. Where is it found and formed ?
  14.  What are the main character of Regur soil  very useful for cultivating  i)——–ii)—— iii)——–
  15. How soil in Odisha ,Chhattisgarh is yellow or red in colour ? How is it formed  and used in cultivation of ——?
  16. Tea ,Coffee ,and  Cashew nuts needs the soil _______ where it is found and what are the main characteristic of the soil ?
  17. What is the other name of desert soil ?Why is it red to brown in colour? How is it formed ? where are they found in the country for which crops are they useful?
  18. The loamy and silty in valley side and coarse in upper slopes are the type of which kind of soil mostly used for which kind of crops ?
  19. What is land utilization ? Define a)Land not available for cultivation b)Uncultivated land c) Fallow land d) Net sown aera  e)Piedmont zone f) Decca trap region g) Duars,chos ,terai h) Arable land i) Desertification.
  20. Which state in the north east states has fully surveyed for land use a)Manipur b) Assam c) Tripura .
  21.  Agenda 21 was signed in 1992 for  which motive and in which country ?

Forest and wild life

  1. Define the following: i) Natural Vegetation ii) Wild life iii) Flora iv) Fauna v) Eco- system .vi) Zoological Park vi) Wild life Sanctuaries vii)Biodiversity .
  2. India  has how many plant species and flowering plant species.  How many species of animals, birds and insects are present in India ?
  3. How many types of forest in India ? How is ecological imbalance is created ?
  4. When was project tiger launched in India? When was ” The Indian Wildlife Protection Act”  implemented in which years the provisions were added to it ? Which mineral mining in west  Bengal is threat to tiger.
  5. Who can play vital role in the conservation of forest and wildlife ?
  6. How is biological loss take place and can be corrected?
  7.  what are Taxol? As per UN report per head trees in India are ——-.and that highest in the world in ———-.
  8.  What is the rise in temperature of our environment after every 5 years.
  9. What are Normal species give example .
  10. Define a)Endangered species b)Vulnerable species c)Rare species d) Endemic species e) extinct species.
  11.  Which of the following are Normal, Endangered ,Vulnerable ,Rare , Endemic or extinct species . i) Sal ,Pine , Rodents ii)Blackbuck ,Blue sheep, Crocodile ,Himalayan Brown Bear ,Wild Asiatic Buffalo ,Desert Fox, iii) Hornbill, Gangetic Dolphins ,Indian Rhino iv) lion Tailed Macaque. Andaman Teal ,  Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig , Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh , Asiatic cheetah , Pink head duck.
  12.  What is full form of IUCN .
  13. What are the causes of the depletion of forest land ?
  14.  What are the reasons for decline of in the bio diversity ?Why do we need to conserve bio -diversity ?
  15. Write the methods to conserve the forest  and wild life ?
  16.  What are reserve forest ,protected forest and uncalled forest ?
  17. Name the trees which are considered the sacred one ?Where is Sarika tiger reserve why is it important ?
  18. Why is Chipko Movement famous  and role of community ?
  19. What is Beej Bachoo andolan and Navdany . Which bird is disappearing from Delhi region
  20. What is JFM Programme  which the first state to adopt JFM.

Water Resources

  1. Glaciers/ ground water/ surface run off/Oceans which not the source of fresh water.
  2. According to Falkan Mark, Water stress occurs when  i) water availability is less than 1000 cubic meter per person per day ii) There is flood iii) There is no water scarcity .
  3. What are the causes of water scarcity.? Water of Bhakra Nagal is used for many purposes what are they ?
  4. Bhakra Nagal Dam located on which rivers ? Which Dam is located on the Mahanadi ?
  5.  What are guls or kuls ? What are Khadins/johads ? What are Tankas in Rajasthan ?Bamboo drip irrigation system  is present in which state ?
  6. Rooftop rain water harvesting is made compulsory in which state ? Why is Gendathur  have rare distinction in water ?
  7. What is fresh water? What is %  of ocean water and fresh water ? What is % of fresh water that comes from  ice sheets give example ? How do fresh water mainly comes from ?
  8.  What do you mean of hydrological Cycle ? Name three main sources of  fresh water ? What is water scarcity  for which aera are they associated ?
  9. How is population and agriculture leads to scarcity of water ?
  10.  How is urbanisation and industrailisation are responsible for creating the scarcity of water?
  11.  How is the quality of water is deteriorating ?
  12. What are the adverse effects of over- exploitation of ground water resources ?What is Inundation channels ?
  13.  What are the main causes of water pollution ? What are the important measure for water conservation ?
  14.  What is Dam and what is Multipurpose river valley projects ? What  was the comment  given by Nehru ?
  15. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Multipurpose river Valley projects ?
  16. What is Narmada Bachao Andolan explain ?


  1. If India is an agriculture country then  what % of  population is involved in it ?Is  it primary /secondary activity what does it produces as food product , raw material for which industry ,which products to earn foreign exchange ?
  2. What is Primitive Subsistence farming ? How and why is it done ? When the fertility of soil decreases what does the farmer do and why ? Why is the land productivity is low ?
  3. How is Intensive Subsistence farming  done ? Why it’s yield per hectare is high ? What kind of cropping is done?
  4. What is Commercial agriculture? How is it done and what are it’s inputs ?
  5.  What kind of crop Rice for Punjab and for Odisha ?
  6. What is plantation agriculture? What are it’s main characteristics?
  7. Name the three seasons of cropping ? When are seeds sown in rabi crops when are they harvested  name the important crops  in rabi. What is the other name of Kharif Crops  when are the seeds sown and harvested  Give important names of crops .What is Zaid Season and it’s main crops .?
  8. Name the cropping seasons of  Wheat , Barely, Rice, Maize ,Millets, Mustards ,  watermelon , muskmelon Pea , Groundnuts , Cotton ,Jute, cucumber.
  9. Rice : position in world,  largest producer in world , producing state  WHEAT : position in world , state producing . JOWAR : position and state producing  SUGARCANE : position in world ,largest producer in world ,state producing OILSEEDS : position in world , name the major oil seeds produced in India . TEA and COFFEE producing states , COTTON : Position holding in world, soil used major state  JUTE : growing states RUBBER producing states
  10. Write the institutional reforms of  agriculture   ? What is Horticulture ?
  11. Name the food crops ,cash crops, Horticulture crops ?
  12.  Define  Green Revolution , White revolution ,Yellow revolution , Blue revolution , Gene revolution .
  13. In the states like Assam , West Bengal and Odisha three  which paddy crops are grown ?
  14.  Which crop is used as fodder and food crop ?  Name the three millets which have high nutritional value ?
  15.  Write the status of India in groundnuts and rape seeds ? which are the largest producers ?
  16. What is crop rotation ?
  17. What  is the name is given to slash and Burn Agriculture in India in other parts of India  such as  MP, Andhra Pradesh , Odisha , West Ghats , Manipur ,Andaman and Nicobar Island .

Minerals and Energy Resources

  1. What are Minerals defined by Geologist? How are they identified ? What are rocks ? Name the rocks consist of single mineral ? What is ore ?
  2. How  are minerals  generally occur ? What are Veins and lodes  Which are the metals found in veins and lodes ? How do mineral occurs in igneous and metamorphic form?
  3. How is sedimentary rocks minerals formed Give examples? Which kind of minerals are formed by the decomposition on surface ?
  4. Name  . 3  the minerals occurs as alluvial  deposits in  sands of valley floors and base of hills  what are they called ? Are the minerals found in corroded form?
  5. What kinds of minerals are contained  in ocean water ? Name the mineral richly found in ocean water ?
  6. Name the four types of Iron Ore ? What are the% content found in Magnetite and Hematite ?
  7. Badampahar Mines is found in which  belt ? what kind of iron do we get from there ?
  8. Which mine is found in Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt ? Iron from this ore is exported to which countries ?
  9. Kudremukh Mines are in which belt and state ? The slurry / ore is transported to which port ?
  10. Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra lies in which belt and exported through which port ?
  11. Name the Aluminum  Ore  Why is it important metal Write it’s qualities ? Which of the Indian state has highest deposit of Aluminum? Name the aera of Koraput district famous for Aluminum ?
  12. Name the mineral found in leaves or plates  Why is very useful  for electric or electronic industry.
  13. Which state is the leading producer of Mica , Name the important belt. and leading producer of state ?
  14. What are the dangers involved in mining made in India ? How does the mining adversely effect on  the environment?
  15.  Why is Conservation of minerals is necessary and how can it be conserved ?
  16. What are the difference between  Conventional and non -Conventional sources of energy .?
  17. Coal is an important source of energy how? Give three points.
  18. Explain how coal as an industrial raw material a) Name the industry for which it provides raw material b) What are the coal  based products  c) as a fossil fuel.
  19.  Name the four types of coal? Name the coal  of highest quality & % of carbon . What is Bituminous coal it’s % of carbon and mostly used in in which metallurgical system ?
  20. What is the colour ,  Moisture ,Reserve of Lignite Coal ? Name the coal  reserve.
  21. Name the coal which have low content of carbon and high moisture with low heating capacity and burning with smoke ?
  22. What is the age of Gondwana Coal Belt and Tertiary Coal belt ? Where is Damodar Valley Belt Name the coal mines present in it .Name three belt found in Gondwana belts ? Tertiary coal belt in which Northern eastern  states ?
  23. How is Petroleum an important fuel explain the reasons .? How does it act as nodal industry for which industry
  24. Explain the % of  petroleum in Mumbai High ,Gujarat   and Assam .
  25. Oil fields as Ankaleshwar ,Digboi ,Naharkatiya and Moran Hugrijan belongs to which state.
  26. which mineral are required for Nuclear energy where  are they found ?
  27. Name the device which changes solar energy into electricity ? Where is the largest solar plant located ? How does it help in conservation of fuel and ecosystem ?
  28. Why India is known as wind super power ? which is the largest cluster in India for wind Energy name the othe center for wind energy in India .
  29. How can bio gas produced and why is it useful for agriculture ? Why should the  cattle cake be discourage?
  30.  Paravati Valley near Manikarn and Puga Valley in Ladakh are famous for which kind of non conventional energy.
  31. Why is energy important  give examples and how can we conserve it ?
  32.  Name the eco friendly fuel? Balaghat  Copper mine is located in which state
  33. Why are there wide range of colours, hardness ,Crystal forms are found in minerals ?
  34.  Lime stone is used in which industry as raw material?
  35. Mention the three characters of Ferrous group of minerals found in India ?
  36.  Why there is need of use of non conventional source of energy ?What are the two main ways of generating electricity  and how are they different from each other?
  37. Classify between conventional and non conventional sources of energy ?What are the main use of Manganese ?Explain three methods prevention of environmental  degradation ?

Manufacturing Industries

  1. 1 AddedExplain with examples how industries in India have given a major boost in agriculture ?Write the contribution and present growth rate of manufacturing sector in the national economy Suggest the measure to increase the industrial growth rate ?
    2 Added: List the major factors which affect the location of industry at place . What is the key to the decision of factory location ?
    3 Added:3Classify industries on the basis of capital investment How are they different from one another ? Explain with example .
    4 Added: Classify industries on the basis of source of raw material .how are they different from each other?
    Deleted55555 Added: Give examples of industries which cause a lot of water pollution? How can we control the water pollution caused by industry

    What is manufacturing ?  To which sector of economy does it belong ?What are the importance of manufacturing industries for India ?

    Suggest any three steps to minimize the environmental degradation caused  by industrial development


    1. Modern  means of transport and communication serve as lifeline of our nation Justify The statement.
    2. Define the Road density? What is the average road density in India ? Name the state having the highest and low density ?What is the main reason for this difference in their density ?
    3. What are problems faced by Road transport in India ?
    4. Why is the distribution of Roads not uniform In India ? Examples .
    5. Railways plays an important role in Indian Economy ? Give the reason .
    6. Analyse the Physiographic and Economic factors that have influenced the distribution pattern of railway network in our country .
    7. List four factors which favored the development of dense network of railways in the northern plains .
    8. Explain the improvement made by the Indian Railways in the Functioning .



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