The people are important to develop the  economy and society . In India  the first census was held in the year 1872. But complete census however was taken in the year 1881. Since then the censuses have been held regularly every 10th year  except 2021 due to covid -19 . By the March 2011 population of India  was 130 crore but in 2023 it is estimated that the population is about is 140 crore. India’s population accounts for 17.5% of the world population. The Most populous state in India is UP and least populous state in India -Sikkim . Population density of India 382 per square km. State with highest population density  is Bihar 1102/sq km. The state  with the lowest population density Arunachal Pradesh 17/ sq km.

Only Bangladesh and Japan have higher average population densities than India . Processes  of population change

BITH RATES : number of live births per thousand persons in a year. DEATH RATES are the number of deaths per thousands persons in  a year  . MIGRATION  is the movement of  people across regions and territories. It is of two type a) Migration can be internal ,it does not change the size of the population but distribution  of population within  the nation b) Migration can be international which  affect the size and distribution . Migration plays a very  significant role in changing the composition and distribution of the population. The main cause of rate of growth of the Indian  population has been the rapid decline in death rates

Since 1981 ,birth  rates have also started declining gradually resulting in a gradual decline in the rate of population growth . Mostly migrations have been from  rural to urban aeras because of the PUSH factors eg the adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in rural aera sand the pull factor eg increased employment opportunities and better living conditions in the urban aeras.

In India , the rural – urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in the percentage of population n in the cities and towns. These are in year 2001  % of population  is 27.78 % which is 35 million plus cities whereas in 2011 is 31.80%  of population  53 million plus cities. The urban population has increased from  17.29% of the population in 1951 to 31.8 %in 2011

AGE COMPOSITION  is one of the most basic characteristics of a population.  It is grouped in three categories  a) CHILDREN ( below 15 years ) They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education and medical care b) WORKING AGE (15-59 years ) They are the population and biologically reproductive .They comprise the working population. c) AGE ( 59 years ) They can be economically productive though they may have retired and they may be working voluntarily.

SEX RATIO is defined as the number of female/ 1000 males in the population. It is an important social indicator to measure the extent of equality between males and females in in a society. The sex ratio in India is 940 . Kerala is the state having highest sex ratio it is 1054/ 1000 of males . The lowest sex ratio is Haryana it is 977. A person aged 7 years above who can read and write and have understanding in any language is treated as literate.

OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE : The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred toas the occupational structure. Occupations are generally classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. i) Primary activities include agriculture, animal husdandry, forestry , fishing , mining and quarrying etc  ii) SECONDARY activities  include  tr manufacturing industry, building  and construction work etc iii) TERTIARY activities include transport,  communications commerce and administration and other services

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA initiated the comprehensive family planning programme in 1952 to improve individual health and welfare. The NPP 2000 provides a policy  framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years  of age , reducing infant mortality rate to  below 30 / 1000 live births , achieving universal immunisation of children again all vaccine preventable  diseases promoting delayed  marriage of girls and making family  welfre a people centered programme .

The population growth rate o population of Chandigrah , Uttarakhand and assam is around or equal to India’s  national  census  of the country  population growth rate 17 % and the Census 2011 is the 15th national  census of the  country 1872. The Population of India at 1210 .2 million is almost equal to the combined population of USA , Indonesia , Brazil  , Pakistan , Bangladeshi and Japan


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