The Age of Industrialisation class 10

1N 1900 E.T. Paull the music publisher produced the book that had the cover picture    The DAWN OF THE CENTURY, there was the goddess like figure the angel of progress bearing the flag of new century. She perched on wheel with wings shows time. she is flying in future shows the sign of progress in every field.

Before Industrial Revolution

  • Industrial production refers to factory production. There was a large scale of international production before the factories established in England and Europe. This age was known as phase of proto-industrialisation.
  • In 17 &18 century European merchants moved to countryside persuade the peasants and artisans to produce for international market with good money. As the expansion of colonies was taking place so the demand for goods also increased.
  • The merchants could not expand the production in cities because of powerful trade guilds and urban craft. These were the associations of producers who trained the craftspeople, control the production, regulate prices as well as restrict the entry of new trader.
  • Rulers provided the guild the monopoly right to produce and trade the specific product so no new merchant could enter the trade.
  • In country peasants and artisans were in very difficult economic situation because of small land holdings happily agreed to do work for merchants. This helped to increase their income along with farming in small Holdings. They could use fuller family resources.
  • The close relations were developed between merchants of towns and workers of countryside. In England merchants purchased wool form wool stapler than gave to spinner for yarn after going through many stages they sent to dyers finally exported in the international market London became the finishing Centre. Each merchant was controlling hundreds of workers.
  •  The Coming of Factory
  • RICHARD  ARKWRIGHT  created the cotton mill till this time  the cloth production was spread all over the countryside but   in the mill all process were conducted under one roof management and supervision by which quality control could be maintained with the regulation of labour became easier.
  • In the 19 th century number of factories increased in England the power of technology  dazzled the production, so merchants focused over the mills forgot the by lanes of production.
  • Industrial Change
  • First the most dynamic industries in Britain were cotton and metal mills. cotton was leading sector till 1840 than after iron and steel due to expansion of railway in England 1840 and in colonies in1860 the demand for iron and steel increased rapidly in1873 Britain earned 77 million pounds by the export of iron and steel which was double of cotton mills revenue.
  • 2nd in the end of 19 century advanced technological sector accommodate 20% of total workforce though textile major production was coming from domestic units but not from factories.
  • 3rd traditional industries did not stagnate but some innovation in non-mechanized sectors such as food processing, building, pottery glasswork industries  etc improved their production.
  • 4th the technological change was very slow. New technology was expensive whereas the merchants and industrialist were very careful in using it because if there is any breakdown repair was expensive and less effective.
  • The best example of the steam engine James Watt improved it which was produced by Newcomen in 1781 it was very surprising that only 321 engines were in England by19 century.80 in cotton mills 9 in wool mills and rest in mining. The most powerful technology was not accepted by industrialist open heartly.
  • Hand Labour and Steam Power
  • There was no shortage of human labour in England because poor peasants moved to cities for work the industrialist was having large number of labours at low wage   they were not interested to invest large capital. .
  • There was seasonal demand of labours in different sectors such as gas works, breweries in the cold months, printers cater during their peak season. carpenters during winters to repair ships .In this production fluctuating industry with season hand workers were preferred.
  • There was the demand for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes so hand labour could do that in the mid of 19 century Britain produced 500 variety of hammers which could be possible by human skills mostly preferred by upper classes. which symbolise refinement of class.
  • The finished product individually produced and carefully design which was possible. by hand made.
  • Worker’s Life
  •  The large numbers of labours  in the market affected the life of the workers. Getting job depended on network friendship and relations. Jobseeker were on the mercy of factory relationship some time they had to live in miserable conditions. such as spending nights under bridges, private night refuges causal wards etc.
  • Sometime when seasonal work over the again become unemployed, came in the streets so some go back to their countryside, and some had to odd jobs.
  • 1830 urban unemployment was 10% the proportion of unemployed was35% to 75% indifferent regions. New technology created fear in the worker for being unemployed. The spinning jenny in the wool industry   made women aggressive agonist new machine.
  • After 1840 building activity increased set up opened the employment by widened the roads, setting up new stations, extending of railway lines, transport development.
  • Age of Indian Textile
  • Silk and Cotton good of India dominated the international market. Armenian and Persian merchants took goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, eastern Persian and central Aisa. Bales of silk was carried on the camel’s back across the desert.
  • Surat on Gujarat coast connected the Gulf and Red Sea Port the Coromandel coast and the Hooghly had trade links with southeast Aisa.
  • Supply merchants linked the port towns. They gave advances to the weavers got the woven clothes and supplied to ports from where export merchants bought from them at negotiated prices with the help of brokers.
  • By 1750 the European Companies got the power to export because they had various of concessions from local courts and got monopoly of trade. the export from Gujarat and Hooghly fell very badly. By1740 trade fell from 16 million to 3million. Therefore, the trade at Bombay and Calcutta grew this showed the colonial power dominated by European companies and ships.
  • Condition of Indian Weavers
  • 1760 The East India Company was interested to expand textile export from India. Before having the political power in Bengal and Carnatic it was difficult to export the goods. There were French, Dutch, Portuguese and local traders with the company traders so weavers and supply merchants sold their produce to highest bidder. so company had to buy woven cloth costlier.
  • As the Company got political power it eliminated all the competition and took absolute right to trade, established the direct control over weavers, appointed the paid servant GOMASTHA to supervise the weavers, examine the quality and collect the supply. They also prevented the weavers from dealing with other buyers.
  • The company started giving the loans to the weavers they took it with aim of earning more   along with small landholdings for cultivation, so weavers involved the whole family in weaving.
  •  Sometimes weavers had clashes with gomasth.The supply merchants had good relationship with weavers they usually helped them in crisis. the Gomasth were arrogant humiliated weavers for not fulfilling their supply promise. They were given very low price and bound to give their produce due loan given to them.
  • Manchester in India
  • 1772 Henry Patullo the company official appreciated the Indian goods to be the best in the world but then also import fell from 33% to 3% by 1851.
  • As cotton industries developed in the world   Britain got fear of import from other countries so industrialist pressurised the government ot impose the import duties on cotton textile items. The company was persuaded to sell the Britain textile in Indian market so import in India increased to 50% by 1850.
  • The Civil war in America caused the decline of cotton raw material in1860 so Britain had to buy raw material from India the price shot up this problem was also faced by Indian weavers, so they had to starved.
  • Factories in India
  • The British in India exported opium to China and Imported tea to  England from China. Dwarkanath Tagore opened six joint stock companies in China 1830 -1840. but sank in crises.
  • In Bombay Parsis DINSHAW PETIT, JAMSETJEE TATA built huge industrial empire in India by export to China and cotton raw material to England.
  • SETH HUKUMCHAND a Marwari set up first jute mill in1917 in Calcutta.also traded in China.
  • G D BIRLA became famous industrialist.
  • Some merchants traded with Burma, Middle East and East Africa.
  • Till First world war the European Managing Agencies controlled the large sector of Indian industries they were Bird Heigle &Co.  Andrew Yule  and Jardine  Skinner.
  • Sources of Workers
  • BY 1946 there were 2,436, ooo workers working in factories. Peasants and Artisans who did find work in village went to industries in the city. In Bombay 50% workers in cotton mills came from Ratnagiri in Kanpur mills from near villages .to get the job was diffcult task industries appointed jobbers for workers as trusted worker. It was his duty to bring the workers from village to recruit in the factory. Also help them. He became the man of authority and power, so workers always made him happy by various means.
  • Industrial Growth in India
  • European Managing Agencies dominated industrial production such tea & coffee plantations, mining, indigo and jute all for export. In India the cotton mills produce the coarse cotton yarn which was used by handloom weavers that were exported to China.
  • Due to Swadeshi Movement the nationalist boycott the foreign goods. Industrialist organised put pressure to increase the tariff for import and give grants to protect. The export of yarn to China 1906 decline as Chinese yarn flooded in China and Japan market. Cotton piece goods production doubled in 1912.
  • During the first world war British factories got busy in producing the war goods, Manchester imports to India fell so the demand for jute bags. cloths for army uniform, tents, boots, etc. increased, many new factories were established, many workers were employed to work for long hours. After the war Manchester could not compete with modern industry, US Japan and Germany.
  • Role of Small-Scale Industry
  • 1911 67% of small-scale segment were in Bengal & Bombay. Small portion of workforce were working in registered industry ie 5 to 10%. Most of worker worked in workshops and household units.
  • Production of handloom became 3times in 1940. because weavers were using the fly shuttle which increased the production Travancore, Madras, Mysore etc. were producing 80% of the total handloom.
  • Some weavers were produced coarse cloth and some produced finer varieties. The coarse cloth was bought by poor this demand depends upon the harvest.
  • The sale of Banarsi  sari ,Baluchari sari with woven border and famous lungis  handkerchief of Madras had ever lasting demand.
  • Market for Goods
  • British manufacturer wanted to dominate Indian market on the other hand Indian weavers tried to extend the market for their produce. Advertisement played important role to create new consumers by changing the minds of the people through the newspapers, magazine, hoardings etc. Manchester industrialist started selling  colth in India by label of MADE IN MANCHESTER without any text. Images of Indian god and goddess appeared on the label to attract Indian buyers e.g. Gripe Water calendar of 1928 was having the image of baby Krrishna,

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