The French revolution 

The French society was divided in three  estates during the 18 century they   First , Second and Third estate .

SOCIAL  HIERARCHY : As the society  was divided in three estates  first estate consist of  CLERGY which were very less in number  second estate  consist of  Nobility they were also but maximum population was of third estate which comprises of  Big businessman , merchants, court officials , lawyers , Peasants ,artesian  landless labor and servants

CONDITION OF FRENCH SOCIETY BEFORE REVOLUTION ; i) Bourbon Kings were leading very luxury  life style so the treasury was getting empty due to their  extravagant life style ii) There were many  subsistence crisis iii) They prolong the war debt and cost of support of American war  of independence  iv) Privileges on the basis of birth right

CAUSES OF REVOLUTION   a) Social causes that society was divided i three estates clergy, nobles and others. There was birth privileges given in society . The first two estate had to make no economic contribution but all the burden fell upon the third estate people in form of tax  The right to representation , separation of churches  and state  , slavery  , closure to western frontiers .

b) Political Causes :  The rulers were very weak and poor and weak policies of Louis XVI the government debts  accumulated during the course of two wars  , faulty administration  and government failures caused  the demonstration , strikes and upheavals , the autocracy of king the power of court  , burden of taxes

c) Economic Causes : the treasury of France was nearly empty due to foolish expenditure nature  of the Kings  , the France was under debt due to long wars and help to America in  war of independence was made their treasure empty  lastly successive bad harvest added fuel to fire in their economic condition .

d) Role of Philosophers :They also played an important role in ignited the mind of the people , they always talked against the birth right and always presented the model of administration based on liberty, equality and fraternity . Rousseau is called  father of French Revolution gave the concept of democratic rights  came from radical wrote  Social contract ,  Montesquieu wrote the spirito law and the Persian letters  Voltaire  wrote Candide which highly influenced the mind of the people of France.

e) Immediate causes  : The proposal to increase in tax in 1789 and insistence of Louis XVI  on estate wise  voting in Estate General were the main cause of uprising  among the third estate people of France.

EVENTS  OF  FRENCH REVOLUTION :  IN 1774 LOUIS XVI  of the Bourbon family  was the king of  France during that society was divided into three estates the clergy and the nobility had special birth rights the third estate formed the majority of the population was unprivileged class

Due to economic  instability  on 5th May 1789  LOUIS XVI called together the meeting of all the estates  in the Estate General to impose the Tax .The members of 3rd estate demanded one person one vote but the King rejected the proposal than uprising started .

On  June 20 ,1789 the members of 3rd estate assembled in the hall of indoor tennis court in the ground of  Versailles and declared themselves as NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, They demanded to reduce the power  of the king. The King ordered  troops to move to  in Paris which  angered the natives and they completely destroyed  the fort of  BASTILLE

ON 14 th July 1789 the uprising crowd stormed to the fort of BASTILLE  which was the symbol of tyranny of old regime and destroyed it . This  triggered the chain  of revolt across the country when the king saw that situation was out of his hands than King LOUIS XVI  accorded  the recognition  to the National Assembly and agreed to give up his power .

On 4th August1789  all the  feudal system of obligation and taxes were abolished by decree. to g Churches properties were confiscated  and clergy  too had  give up all the privileges and the National Assembly  drafted the constitution in 1791 and distributed the powers in legislature , executive and judiciary along with the principle of one person and one vote

Voting was  restricted to ACTIVE CITIZEN   that is only men, must have age more than 25 of years and pay taxes equal to at least  3 days of labor’s wages Remaining men and all women wee considered the  PASSIVE CITIZEN  they did not have any political right .

JACOBIN CLUB : The Political clubs became a rallying point of discussions on the government policies in the Jacobin clubs which became very popular . The members of Jacobin Clubs mainly belonged to the less prosperous sections of society like small shopkeepers, artisans ,shoemakers, watchmakers, painters as well as servants and daily wages workers Their leader was MAXIMALIAN ROBESPIERRE  and they were called sans – culottes meaning breeches without knees .

On 10 th August 1792   Jacobins planned an insurrection  and imprisoned the Royal Family   On 21 st September the same year  declared the France Republic and LOUIS XVI was sentenced to death  on the charge of Treasons and was publicly executed  on 21 January 1703  .The Jacobin Leader  ROBESPIERE  ruled ruthlessly from 1793- 1994 and his regin was known as  REGIN OF TERROR in July  1794 he was  convicted of excessive and executed on GUILITINE. ( a machine used for cutting the heads of people )

Now  after the fall of Jacobin  they allowed the wealthier middle class to seize the power and ruled  through  an Executives which was made upon  Five members called the DIRECTORY  from 26th of  October 1795 but due to frequent clashes of the directors with legislative council it created political instability  this gave the way for  military dictatorship under NAPOLEAN BONAPARTE  who ended the Directory in 1799 and became the first council later on  became the ruler of France  ” Emperor of France ” 1804  He ruled till 1815 till he lost the battle of Waterloo’

The Legacy of  freedom, equality and  fraternity that emerged out of the French Revolution remined inspiring ideals of the following world  Slavery was finally abolished  in 1848 under Napolean from all the colonies of France Women fought for their own rights to vote  till 1946

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