India Size, location and Physical feature Class IX

The population of India is about 142 crore ,is about 17.5%of the world’s population  and having  second position after China. The a geographical aera of India is 32.8 lakh sq km which is 2.4% of the land space of the world  and seventh position in the world after Russia, Canada, USA, China ,Brazil and Australia. India has 28 number of states and 08 union territories , with land boundary  of 15200km Total length of coastline including Andaman and Nicobar as well as Lakshadweep Islands is7516.6 km .Standard Meridian of India is 82degr30’E and it passes through  Mirzapur (UP) Latitudinal extent of India is 8deg4’N to 37 deg6’N where as longitudinal extent is 68 deg7′ E to 97deg25′

India’s Neighboring countries are Pakistan , Afghanistan  lies in the north east of India . China, Tibet , Nepal and Bhutan in the north of India  Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east and Sri Lanka in the south of India. Pakistan  touches Jammu and Kashmir ,  Punjab , Rajasthan and Gujarat. Jammu Kashmir , Himachal Pradesh  Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh touches China, Arunachal Pradesh , Nagaland Manipur and Mizoram  touches Myanmar, Bangladesh  touches West Bengal, Mizoram.  Meghalaya , Tripura and Assam . The Palk of Strait is the channel between India and Sri Lanka . Maldives lies in the south of  Lakshadweep

The  Tropic of Cancer  at 23 deg 30′  passes India and divides  into two halves , it passes through  Gujarat, Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh , Chhattisgarh , Jharkhand ,  West Bengal ,Tripura , and Mizoram (8 states ) The largest states is Rajasthan  in terms of aera the smallest states in term of aera is  Goa  .Total length from North to south is 3214km and breath from East to West id 2933km . The group of Islands  of India  located in the Bay of Bengal is  Andaman and Nicobar Islands where as in Arabian Sea is  Lakshadweep Islands. The Ocean which has  been named after our country is Indian Ocean


THE HIMALAYAN MOUNTAIN :  It is the young fold mountains stretch over the northern borders of India , It’s total length is 2400km with is 400km  in Kashmir to 150 km in Arunachal Pradesh . The Himalayas consist of three parallel ranges in it’s longitudinal extent  a) Great/Inner Himalayas or  the Himadri : It is the northern most range of the Himalayas  It is the most continuous range and contains all the prominent Himalayas peaks with the average height of 6000 meters some of the highest peaks are  the mount Everest, Kanchenjunga , Makali , Naga Parbat . b)Lesser Himalayas /Himachal :  It’s altitude varies from 3700 m to 4500 m  . Pir Panjal , Dhaula  Dhar  and Mahabharat are the important ranges .The famous valleys as Kashmir, Kullu and Kandra lies in this aera c) Shivalik’s :  This is the outermost ranged of the Himalayas The altitude varies between 900 to 1100 meters The longitudinal  valley  lying between lesser  Himalayas and the Shivalik’s are known  as Duns , Dehra dun , Kotli Dun and Patli Dun  are some important known as Duns. The Himalayas  have been divided on the basis of region west to east These  are a) The Punjab Himalayas lie between Indus and Sutlej rivers b) Kumaon Himalayas  lies between lie between Sutlej and Kali rivers , c) Nepal Himalayas lies between  Kali and Tista rivers d) Assam Himalayas lie between Tista  and Dihang rivers e) Purv Anchal Himalayas : is extended along the eastern border of India


THE NORTHERN PLAIN : The northern plain has been  formed by the interplay of the three major river system  such as The Indus , the  Ganga ,and the  Brahmaputra along with their tributaries . The plain is formed of alluvial soil . It is agriculturally a very productive part of India . The northern plain is broadly divided the three sections a) Punjab Plains This is  the western part of the northern plain. It is formed by the Indus and its tributaries the Jhelum ,the Chenab  the Ravi the Beas and the Sutlej. This section of the plain is dominated by doabs. b) The Ganga Plain : It extends between  Ganga and  Yamuna rivers . The is spread over the states of Haryana , Delhi , UP , Bihar  Jharkhand and West Bengal  c) The Brahmaputra Plain : The Plain is formed  by the Brahmaputra and it’s tributaries . It lies mainly in the state  of Assam.

The Northern Plain can be divided into  four regions according to the variations in relief  features : a)Bhabar This region  lies  parallel  to the slopes of the Shivalik. The rivers , after descending from the mountains  deposits the pebbles in this region. All the  streams disappear  in this bhabar region  b)  Terai  It lies to the south of bhabar . The  streams and rivers re-emerge here .It is wet, swampy and the marshy region c)Bhangar is the largest part of the northern  plain and is formed of the oldest alluvial soil .They lie above the flood plains of the rivers and present a terrace like feature. The soil in this region contain calcareous deposits locally known as  kankar d) Khadar  It is the flood plains formed by newer and younger depositsare called Khadar. They are renewed almost every year and so they are fertile.

THE PENINSULAR  PLATEAU : It  is composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks . It was the part of  the Gondwana Land thus making the part of oldest landmass. It consist of two region i) Central Highlands ii) Deccan Plateau . The black soil aeraof the peninsular plateau is called  Deccan  Trap This is a  volcanic region so there are  igneous rocks.

The Indian Desert  lies towards the western  margins of the  Aravalli  Hills .It is an undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes. This region receive very low rainfall below 150mm/year , having arid climate with low vegetation . Streams appears during rainy season . LUNI is the large river in this region . Barchans  a crescent shaped dunes  cover larger aeras of the Indian  Desert.

THE COSTAL PLAINS :  It is divided in two forms western coast and eastern coast

The Western Coast :  It is located between the western ghats and  the Arabian sea, relatively narrow . It consist of  three sections the northern part of the coast is called Konkan , the central  stretch is called Kannad Plains while the southern part is called  Malabar  coast.

The Eastern  Coast : It lies between the eastern ghats and the Bay of Bengal . It is comparatively wider .It is divided in two parts  the north part is called  Northern Circar where as south part is  called  Coromandel Coast . The Large rivers like the Mahanadi, The Godavari The Krishna and the  Kaveri  form extensive delta on the coast . The Chilaka lake  is the largest salt water lake in the state  Odisha

The western and Eastern ghats are the marks of their respective edges of the Deccan Plateau .a) Western Ghats  lies along the Arabian sea . They are continuous and can be crossed through passes , average height is 900-1600 meters The highest peak is Anai -Mudi (2695 meters) b) Eastern Ghats lies along Bay of Bengal, they are discontinuous , irregular and dissected by the rivers ,their average height is 600 meters the highest peak Mahendragiri (1501 meters)

The Islands :  a)Lakshadweep Islands : This group of islands is composed  of small coal islands which cover a small aera of 32 sq km. Kavaratti island is the administrative headquarters of the island It has diverse flora and  fauna for which it is famous . b) The Andaman and Nicobar Islands  These islands are located in the Bay of Bengal extended from north to south The entire group of islands are divided into two broad category The Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south > It is believed  that these islands are elevated portion of the submarine mountains  These islands lie very close to equator and experience the equatorial climate and have thick forest cover



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