NATURAL VEGETATION  refers to  a plant community  which has grown naturally without human intervention for longtime. It is also termed as Virgin Vegetation .On the basis of it’s residence  are of two types i) Endemic  are those which are purely native ii)Exotic are those which are brought for some other place long ago. The term Flora is used to denote plants of a particular region period and the species of the animals are referred as Funa

NATIONAL PARK : Habitat for particular plant / wild  animal eg Jim Corbet  is the national park for the tiger reserve , size range is .4- 3162 sq km tourism permissible .

SANTUARY is the natural aera reserved for the species – oriented  plant/animals eg Manas Bird Sanctuary  general size range of .6 to 7818 sq km and tourism permissible .

BIOSPHERE RESERVE is the natural aera meant to reserve all form of life ie ecosystem oriented such as Simlipal Bio reserve. The size  5670sq km but not permissible for tourism.

LAND,SOIL , TEMPERATURE ,SUNLIGHT  AND PRECIPITATION are the important factors affecting the flora and fauna of the place.

LAND : The nature of land influences type of vegetation as undulating and rough terrains developed into a verity of natural wildlife as compared to fertile land which is used for agriculture

SOIL: There are different types of soil support different vegetation sandy soil supports thorny  bushes where as deltaic soil support  mangrove vegetation

TEMPERATURE : as  we can see that tropical aera has verity of vegetation as compared to temperate region. More-over as we go to the higher altitude, vegetation cover changes from temperate forest to grassland to tundra and finally alpine type .

PRECIPITATION is the heavy rainfall aeras have generally dense vegetation cover as compared to scanty rainfall are aeras.

SUNLIGHT ; Itis observed that due to longer duration of sunlight trees grows faster in the summer as compared to the other season of year

ECOSYSTEM The system  of interaction among biotic component and their interaction with abiotic component of a particular  aera is called ecosystem . such as pond ecosystem , river ecosystem, lake , forest and grassland

Ecosystem is classified into a) Biotic Component such as producers as plants , consumer as human being and decomposer as bacteria and fungi . b)Abiotic component such as climate factor like rain, wind and temperature soil and mineral

Types of Ecosystem : a) Terrestrial land which consist of forest, grassland and desert b) Aquatic  further divide into pond, lake river and Estuary.

A very large ecosystem of an aera having distinct types of flora and Fauna is called Biome

BIOSPHERE ==.> BIOME ==>ECOSYSTEM ===> COMMUNITY ===>POPULATION =>INDIVIDUAL are  related to each other.

IMPORTANCE OF  FOREST  :It gives medicined , supply of oxygen , It supply manure , It is controlling floods and land degradation, It is natural Habitual to wild life , It maintaining the climate a place, supply of food stock  , It helps the preventing soil erosion and maintaining the fertility , the it control temperature of a place It provides fuel and also help in bringing rain


i) TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST  are those which have rainfall more than 200cm they are having warm and wet climate. Trees shed leaves at different times of the year , the heigh of the trees is more than 60 m . It has very dense and  forms canopy it’s woods are hard .Wildlife are elephant, monkey , lemur ,deer , verity of birds , sloth Scorpio and snakes  mostly found in western ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Island , Lakshadweep ,Assam and Tamil Nadu

ii) TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST is classified into Wet Deciduous having rainfall of 200-100 cm and Dry Deciduous with rainfall of 100cm – 70 cm they have same variety of tree , it shed their leaves at the same time of the year  woods are moderately hard such as teak, Sal , shisham , bamboo , khair sandalwood , Arjun Mulberry , Peepal and Neem wild life found are Lion, tiger, deer, pig, elephant , Variety of birds lizards , snakes and Tortoise it is found in aera of Jharkhand ,Orissa ,Chhattisgarh , Northern eastern states , Bihar anUP

THORN FOREST AND BUSHES  is the area having less than 70 cm rainfall . Mostly thorny bushes and trees. Trees are deep rooted . Leaves modified into into spine and stem have waxy  coating to reduce loss of water . Acacia, Palm , Cacti and Euphorbias Rats, mice rabbits fox wolf wild ass camel it is found in  Gujarat, Rajasthan, arid region  of MP ,  and Chhattisgarh Haryana

HIMALAYA MOUNTAIN FOREST  is classified between 1000-2000m is wet temperate forest  which have broad leaves and soft wood  oak and chestnut are found, 1t the height of 1500m – 3000m temperate forest are found where we find cone shape trees , needle like leaves to protect from snow deposition ,at the higher level grassland is found Pine, deodar silver fir , spruce cedar  Kashmir stag , spotted bear , sheep jack rabbit they are found in Jammu and Kashmir , Himachal Pradesh , Uttarakhand . Alpine Vegetation is found at the height more than 3600 m the grassland used by pastoral nomads of that aera Juniper, Pine and Birches  Red Panda , snow Leopard  are found . Tundra vegetation in which there are no trees and grassland therefore mosses, lichens are found

MANGROVE FOREST / TIDAL FOREST Sundari trees has root submerged in saline water provide hard timber Sundari , palm ,coconut agar Bengal tiger , turtle, crocodiles, gharials ,snakes Delta of Mahanadi , Kavari , Godavari and West Bengal

WILD LIFE PROTECTION  ACT  was implemented in 1972 in India . India is only the country where both  Lion and Tigers are found .Gir Forest of Gujarat  is the last  remaining habitat  of ASIANTIC LION . The country has around 90 thousand  of animal species, 2000 species of birds ,2546 species of fishes 5-8% of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals. To protect the  flora and fauna the government has taken the following steps i) Eighteen biosphere  reserves have been establish in the country to protect the flora and  fauna. ii) Financial and technical support is provided to many Botanical Gardens by the Government since 1992. The project Tiger, Project Rhino , Project  Great Indian Bustard and many other eco-system development project have been introduced . 103 national parks , 535 wild life  sanctuaries and zoological gardens  have been set up to take care of natural  habitat of the  fauna.

POPULAR  BIOSPHERE  RESERVE : i)Sundarban in West Bengal ii) Simlipal in Odisha iii) Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu iv)Dihang and Dibang in Arunachal Pradesh v)The Nilgiris  in Tamil Nadu , Kerala , Karnataka  vi) Dibru Saikhowa in Assam vii) Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand viii)Agasthyamalai in Kerala ,Tamil Nadu ix)Nokrek in Meghalaya x) Kanchenjunga in Sikkim xi) Manas in Assam xii)Panchmari in MP xiii) Great Nicobar in Andaman and Nicobar Island xiv) Achanakmar and Amarkantak in MP and Chhattisgrah

POPULAR NATIONAL PARK FOR WILD LIFE RESERVE : 1) Kaziranga in Assam in 1974 to reserve one horned Rhino , elephant and Tiger 2) Manas in Assam in1990  to preserve roofed turtle, golden langur 3)Gir in Gujarat in1975  to preserve Asiatic Lion 4) Hemis in J&K in1981 for snow leopard 5)Bandipur in Karnataka in 1974 to preserve Asian elephant and tiger 6)Periyar in Kerala in 1982 for Nilgiris Languor, Flying squirrel 7) Eravikulum in Kerala in 1978  to preserve  Nilgiri Thar , Atals moth , elephant 8) Bandhavgarh in MP in 1982 to tiger, leopard and boars. 9) Kanha in MP in 1955 to preserve tiger, leopard and elephant 10) Madhav in MP in 1959 to preserve Indian Gazelle , Nilgai , Sambar 11)Panna in MPin1973 for tiger, wolf , chital 12) Keoladeo in Rajasthan in 1981 to preserve the Siberian Crane, Migratory Birds species 13) Ranthambore in Rajasthan in 1980tiger ,leopard and boars 14) Sariska in Rajasthan in 1982  to preserve  four horn deer, caracal , leopard 15) Madumlai in Tamil Nadu in 1940 to preserve tiger, leopard , elephant and vulture 16) Corbet in Uttarakhand  in !936 for tiger , leopard and elephant 17) Nada Devi in Uttarakhand 1988  to preserve tiger and leopard . 18) Valley of Flowers in Uttarakhand in 1980 snow leopard, musk deer red fox 190Dudhwa in UP in 1977 for tiger and Rhino 20) Sunderban in West Bengal in 1984 Royal Bengal Tiger


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